The POPs team collects water samples for analysis. Two team members go out in a Zodiac boat to the sampling stations. These are Stations A (alpha), B (bravo), E (echo), G (golf) and I (India). We use the names in parentheses when we report our positions back to Palmer via radio. It is easier to hear the words than the letters when talking on the radio.
These stations are the places established by the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research Project (LTER), of which our study is a part. The other LTER scientists are taking measurements (of other things in the water) at stations B and E, so we do that also. We are taking measurements at Stations A, G, and I because the wind often comes from the direction of the glacier. Any POPs from the glacier might be deposited in the waters around stations G and I.
We use a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) device to make sure we are at the proper location on station. If the currents and winds have carried us away from the sampling site by more than .25 nautical miles, we interrupt the sampling and move the Zodiac back into position.
We use a battery-operated pump to pump the water. The water intake tube is lowered by a winch to a depth of 5 meters beneath the surface. We fill up two canisters of water at each station. Weather permitting, we try to take water samples from two stations each day. Then we return to Palmer Station, lift the canisters out of the Zodiac, and take them into the lab. In the lab, the water is filtered under pressure through an XAD bead resin column. The columns will be taken back to Virginia for analysis.
Here's the math: Each canister holds 40 liters of water, and each takes about 25 minutes to fill. What is the flow rate from this pump in milliliters per minute? How much does the water in each canister weigh? (one liter of water weighs one kilogram)